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Differences between genotypes affect the disease severity, course and likelihood of complications, and response to treatment and possibly vaccination.
The genotypes have a distinct geographical distribution and are used in tracing the evolution and transmission of the virus.
In addition to alterations at the sites of DNA repair, epigenetic alterations are also caused by HBx recruiting the DNA methyltransferase enzymes, DNMT1 and/or DNMT3A, to specific gene loci to alter their methylation levels and gene expression.
Each altered micro RNA can affect the expression of several hundred messenger RNAs (see micro RNA).
The virus is divided into four major serotypes (adr, adw, ayr, ayw) based on antigenic epitopes present on its envelope proteins.
These serotypes are based on a common determinant (a) and two mutually exclusive determinant pairs (d/y and w/r).
The nucleocapsid encloses the viral DNA and a DNA polymerase that has reverse transcriptase activity similar to retroviruses.